Russia frantically invested in chip lithography technology as they have been sanctioned by USA
According to a report by the Zelenograd city government, the Russian government will provide 670 million rubles ($8.5 million) to support research into chip lithography technology.

Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (MIET) is responsible for the proper use of funds, promoting the plan to develop a maskless lithography machine based on X-ray synchronization and/or plasma source. The new type of device is expected to be able to process semiconductor wafers with sizes of 28nm, 16nm, or even smaller.

According to digitalfuture, photolithography is the process of using an x-ray beam with amplified features to penetrate a mask. Thus, this mask above will print the images to be created, from which the details will be printed on the variable contrast area. Through the converging lens, the shadow of the light beam is focused on the plate surface to create microscopic details. This is considered the most advanced technology in photolithography today.

Western sanctions are having a devastating effect on the Russian economy, not only in daily necessities and consumer electronics, but also semiconductors (important to local industry as well as the military. ).

At the end of last month, the Russian government decided to provide some much-needed funding to many local research institutes, to develop the essential machinery for the "homegrown" semiconductor business. In addition, the country is also considering cooperation with China.

Netherlands-based ASML is the sole supplier of EUV photolithography. Major companies such as TSMC, Samsung and Intel are all customers of ASML, but Russia and China are not on the allowed list. This hinders the development of chip foundry industry.

According to some sources, Russia participated in the EUV's experimental development of lithography in the 2010s. Their top scientists decided the project could not be completed due to geographical distance, so a part of research related to radiation source has been shared with ASML for implementation.

In addition, a number of other interesting Russian works, such as the development of a synctron X-ray source in the mid-1980s, will also appear on this technology.

Not only did MIET refine their X-ray lithography scheme, they also wanted to delve deeper. “Our project is a one-of-a- kind project,” said Nikolai Dyuzhev, director of Microsystems and Electronics at MIET . No organization or country has ever performed maskless lithography on such a principle before. We've said that the finished product could allow for wafer processing of 28nm, 16nm or lower, but the technique has the potential to work well even at sub-10nm designs."

The project is expected to start in November this year. Prior to that, it was necessary to complete a proposal of specifications along with a feasibility study for a prototype X-ray lithography machine.

We still have to wait at least 5 years for the production test run using this technology to start. Although the above project is far from reality, it still serves as an important reference data for the global semiconductor manufacturing science.

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